Rensis Likert along with his associates in Michigan University, USA conducted research to study the patterns and styles of managers over three decades, across organizations and developed a four-fold model of the management system that helped in understanding the leadership behavior. In this type of management system, the responsibility lies with the people in higher positions in the hierarchy.
The model was developed on the basis of a questionnaire administered to managers in over organizations and research into the performance characteristics of different types of organizations. The four systems of management system or the four leadership styles identified by Likert are: System 1 - Exploitative Authoritative: Responsibility lies in the hands of the people at the upper echelons of the hierarchy.
The superior has no trust and confidence in subordinates. The decisions are imposed on subordinates and they do not feel free at all to discuss things about the job with their superior.
The teamwork or communication is very little and the motivation is based on threats. System 2 - Benevolent Authoritative: The responsibility lies at the managerial levels but not at the lower levels of the organizational hierarchy. The superior has condescending confidence and trust in subordinates master-servant relationship.
Here again, the subordinates do not feel free to discuss things about the job with their superior. The teamwork or communication is very little and motivation is based on a system of rewards. System 3 - Consultative: Responsibility is spread widely through the organizational hierarchy.
The superior has substantial but not complete confidence in subordinates. Some amount of discussion about job related things takes place between the superior and subordinates.
There is a fair amount of teamwork, and communication takes place vertically and horizontally. The motivation is based on rewards and involvement in the job.
System 4 - Participative: Responsibility for achieving the organizational goals is widespread throughout the organizational hierarchy.
There is a high level of confidence that the superior has in his subordinates. There is a high level of teamwork, communication, and participation. The nature of these four management systems has been described by Likert through a profile of organizational characteristics.
In this profile, the four management systems have been compared with one another on the basis of certain organizational variables which are:He outlined four systems of management to describe the relationship, involvement, and roles of managers and subordinates in industrial settings.
He based the systems on studies of highly productive supervisors and their team members of an American Insurance Company. Likert’s management systems are management styles developed by Rensis Likert in the s. He outlined four systems of management to describe the relationship, involvement, and roles of managers and subordinates in industrial settings.
Likert's four systems on leadership 1.
OVERVIEW: A Brief Introduction about RENESIS LIKERT. What LIKERT SCALE is all about? With an example. Linking Pin Model?
LIKERT’s FOUR SYSTEM. Advantages. Conclusion. 2. Renesis Likert - An American Educator &A Organizational Psychologist. He has given a continuum of four systems of management (in his management system).
Likert has taken seven variables of different management systems. These variables include leadership, motivation, communication, interaction influence, decision-making process, goal setting and control process.
According to Likert the four management systems are: System 1 (Exploitive authoritative); System 2 (Benevolent authoritative); System 3 (Consultative); and System 4 (Participative group) (Likert, ). The four systems of management system or the four leadership styles identified by Likert are: System 1 - Exploitative Authoritative: Responsibility lies in the hands of the people at the upper echelons of the hierarchy.
The superior has no trust and confidence in subordinates.