See Article History Alternative Title: The youngest child of a Viennese dental surgeon, Klein expressed an early interest in medicine but abandoned her plans when she married at The marriage, though unhappy, produced three children.
Her father, brought up in a strictly orthodox Jewish family and originally trained to be a student of the Talmud, broke away from this tradition at the age of 37, studied medicine, and later practiced as a dentist. Her mother was the daughter of a rabbi.
Melanie was the youngest of four children. Her only brother, five years her senior and an intelligent and gifted young man, had a deep influence on her, but he died when he was only At the age of 14, Melanie decided to study medicine, but she became engaged at 17 and gave up her plans for a medical career.
She never lost her interest in medicine, however, and always regretted that she had not become qualified as a doctor. When she was 21, she married Arthur Klein, an industrial chemist; the marriage was not a happy one.
They had three children, a daughter and two sons. From the time she moved to Berlin Melanie Klein devoted herself fully to psychoanalytical practice and research. She was deeply impressed and influenced by the work of Abraham—perhaps most notably by his work on the early stages of infantile development.
Early in she went into analysis with him, but the analysis was terminated by his fatal illness in the summer of After his death she carried on regular daily self-analysis. Soon after her arrival in Berlin she began to develop her technique of analyzing children.
Her first contributions to the Berlin society aroused considerable interest as well as considerable controtroversy there and abroad, and in Ernest Jonesthe president of the British Psycho-analytic Society, invited her to give a course of lectures in London. In she accepted an invitation from the British society to settle permanently in London.
Melanie klien and psychology her work developed, and her clinical and theoretical approach was widely accepted by other analysts.
The differences arose mainly from the significance for all later Melanie klien and psychology that the British analysts attributed to early infantile anxieties and unconscious fantasies occurring in the first year of life and from their contention that these anxieties and fantasies can be explored in the transference situation.
These differences were acknowledged by the British and the Viennese groups of analysts, and in exchange lectures Riviere ; Waelder were arranged in order to clarify the different points of view.
When in many Viennese analysts settled in London, the conflicts of opinion became more marked and threatened to cause a split within the British society. However, unity was preserved by the creation of two separate streams of training within the main teaching course.
Her views have greatly influenced psychoanalytic thinking both within and outside Great Britainand in several countries groups have formed that have attempted to base their work on her views.
During the years from to Melanie Klein developed her technique of analyzing children a. Her aim was to create a psychoanalytic setting for children similar to that created by Freud for the treatment of adult patients, a setting in which the patient is free to develop a transference relationship to the analyst and to use free association, so that the therapeutic result depends purely on interpretative work.
To achieve this she provided the child with a simply furnished room containing a box of small toys and other play materials. Since the child expresses him-self in play more than in words, she analyzed free playtreating it as free association, and showed that one can achieve an analytical relationship with the child, using neither re-education nor reassurance.
This emphasis on anxiety led her ever deeper into the unconscious fantasy life of the child. Her emphasis ran counter to the then current psychoanalytic tenet that interpretations should not go very deep and should not be given frequently a. Some of the main differences in approach were expressed in a symposium on child analysis held in see Her technique led to the understanding of early infantile fantasies, anxieties, and defenses, all of which were at that time still largely unexplored.
When she was analyzing small children she found that many of the processes and structures described by Freud had their roots in much earlier periods of life than he had postulated. For instance, a little girl patient, only two years and nine months old, was found to have a strong superego, a structure that Freud believed was not built up until about the fifth year; and the same child had a complicated and long-standing triangular relationship to her parents Oedipus complexwhereas Freud believed that the Oedipus complex did not come into being until about three or four years of age.
Her discoveries in this period culminated in the publication in of The Psycho-analysis of Children, in which she described her technique with three different age groups of children and elaborated her findings on the early anxiety situations of infancy and their effects on the development of the ego and superego, on the sexual development of boy and girl, and on other aspects of normal growth and neurotic illness.
Her views on early anxiety situations were clarified and extended. She made an important contribution to the psychopathology and treatment of manic-depressive states by elaborating on the nature of depression and the relation of manic defenses to the depressive conflict see In addition, she presented a detailed reconstruction of infantile phases of development in the first year, an under-standing of which she regarded as basic for the comprehension of psychotic illnesses in adult life.
She introduced the concept of the paranoid and of the depressive position.
In the paranoid position, extending over the first three to four months, the infant perceives his mother mainly as a part object breast that is either very good or very bad, and the anxiety situations have a paranoid character.
The depressive position begins to develop in the fourth or fifth month.Melanie Klien and Psychology 1- Melanie Klein claimed that in their earliest stages of infantile psychic life, they go through a complete development, through certain position. There are two major positions, the paranoid-schizoid position and the depressive position.
The paranoid-schizoid position is the earlier position, whereby if a child. Melanie Klein extended and developed Sigmund Freud’s understanding of the unconscious mind.
By analysing children’s play, much as Freud had analysed dreams, she explored the uncharted territory of the mind of the infant, finding an early Oedipus complex and the earliest roots of the superego.
Segal further developed Klein's . Melanie Klein was an Austrian-born psychoanalyst who pioneered the development of child psychoanalysis. She was an innovator on theories and techniques for working with children, such as play therapy and object relations theory.
Melanie Klien and Psychology 1- Melanie Klein claimed that in their earliest stages of infantile psychic life, they go through a complete development, through certain position. Object Relations Theory.
Melanie Klein is regarded as one of the founders of `Object Relations Theory,’ a field of thought that developed from Freud’s psychodynamic theory.
This collection of theories discusses the effect of the internalized relations with primary caretakers during infancy (i.e. objects), and their unconscious influence on. Melanie Reizes Klein (30 March – 22 September ) was an Austrian-British psychoanalyst who devised novel therapeutic techniques for children that influenced child psychology and contemporary psychoanalysis.
She was a .